Introduction
Approximately 200.000 people worldwide are diagnosed with primary brain cancer each year. Gliomas are the most common subtype of primary brain tumor.

Glioma subtypes
As of 2016, the world health organisation (WHO) recognises three main subtypes of gliomas: Astrocytomas, Oligodendrogliomas and Glioblastomas. The names “astrocytoma” and “oligodendroglioma” are derived from the type of glial cell they most resemble: astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. The subtypes are defined by the presence or absence of specific molecular features (mutations in the IDH1 or IDH2 genes, and/or combined deletion of the 1p and 19q chromosomal arms). Gliomas are further classified into different grades depending on the number of malignant features present. Glioblastoma-IDHwt gliomas are not only the most aggressive, but unfortunately also the most common subtype of glioma.

Prognosis and Treatment
Despite advances in neurosurgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy the prognosis for most glioma patients remains poor. This poor prognosis is reflected by the disproportional high mortality rate of gliomas compared to most other types of cancer. Survival can depend on the histological subtype, grade, patient age and patient performance. Treatment may depend on the type and grade of glioma and may involve surgical resection, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or combinations thereof.

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  2. Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, Cavenee WK, editors. WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. revised 4th ed. Lyon; 2016.
  3. www.cbtrus.org
 
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